post exposure prophylaxis
PEP is any prophylactic (preventive) treatment started immediately after exposure to blood or bodily fluid contaminated with a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), to be able to prevent infection and the development of disease.
Although multiple diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood, probably the most serious infections are hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV. Fortunately, the risk of acquiring these infections is low.
To be able to come in contact with a blood borne hiv pep singapore, you'll want contact with blood, a visibly bloody fluid (i.e., phlegm or urine containing blood), or another bodily fluid (i.e., semen or vaginal secretions) which contain an infectious organism (virus or bacteria). The blood or fluid must can be found in direct contact with some part of one's body. A disease can enter your body through the bloodstream, open skin, or mucous membranes, including a person's eye, mouth, or genitals. Contact with skin that's intact (without new cuts, scrapes, or rashes) poses no danger of infection.
Thus, exposure to a blood borne pathogen is possible after:
A skin injury such as a needle stick or cut with a sharp object and/or contact with a mucous membrane (including exposure through sexual intercourse, particularly when an ulcer is present or vaginal/rectal tissues are injured) or non-intact skin.
What do I really do after blood or body fluid exposure?
• Wash the area - The first and most critical step after being exposed to blood or bodily fluids is to wash the area well with soap and water. You can clean small wounds and punctures by having an antiseptic such as an alcohol-based hand gel, since alcohol kills HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the alcohol may sting. For mucosal surfaces (mouth, nose), the area should be flushed with copious levels of water. Eyes should be flushed with saline or water. There's no evidence that expressing fluid by squeezing the wound will further reduce the risk of blood borne infection.
Exactly what do the physician do after implementing first aid measures?
• Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - Treatments can be found to cut back the risk of becoming contaminated with HIV after exposure. Previous studies have suggested that the usage of an anti-HIV medication, reduced the already low danger of healthcare workers becoming contaminated with HIV by about 81% (but perhaps an increased rate of prevention with the new anti-HIV agents available). The danger of becoming contaminated with HIV as a result of other kinds of exposure (i.e., trauma, rape) might be even below the risk of infection after a needle stick.
Anyone who is exposed to potentially infected blood or bodily fluids should be tested for HIV at the time of exposure (baseline) and at six weeks, 3 months, and half a year post exposure. The baseline HIV test is essential (and required) to document that the HIV infection was not already present at the time of the incident. Experts from the United States Center for Disease Control recommend use of medications to cut back the risk of HIV infection if every one of the following criteria are met:
• Exposure occurred less than 72 hours previously
• A number of of the next areas were exposed: the vagina, rectum, eye, mouth, or other mucous membrane, open skin, through your skin (i.e., from a sharp object or needle)
• A number of of the next bodily fluids were involved in the exposure: blood, semen, vaginal secretions, rectal secretions, breast milk, or any body fluid that's visibly contaminated with blood.